Deepa Bhartiya, Kenneth R. Stem cells have captured the attention of both researchers and the public alike because of the promise of tissue regeneration, drug screening, and organogenesis. Stem cells are broadly classified as embryonic or adult with differentiation capacities ranging from pluripotent and multipotent to unipotent. In general, pluripotent stem cells are ascribed to cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos or to those generated experimentally using reprogramming factors. Adult stem or progenitor cells are generally tissue-restricted but reside in most organs. Transplantation of adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, for example, represents a standard method of clinical care for autoimmune diseases and hematological disorders.
Multipotent to Pluripotent Properties of Adult Stem Cells
Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells | SpringerLink
Stem cell therapies capable of regenerating any human tissue damaged by injury, disease, or aging could be available within a few years, following landmark research led by UNSW Australia researchers. Scientists took one step closer to mimicking the biology of animals such as salamanders, which can regenerate entire limbs, through the creation of an induced multipotent stem iMS cell. It is conceivable that this new development could be used to repair everything from spinal discs to bone fractures and has the potential to transform current treatment approaches to regenerative medicine. There are numerous types of stem cells, such as embryonic stem ES cells, which during embryonic development generate every type of cell in the human body, and adult stem cells, which are tissue specific. Before the current study, there were no adult stem cells that could regenerate multiple tissue types.
Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?
In the laboratory of Catherine Verfaillie at the University of Minnesota described the multipotent adult progenitor cell MAPC as a novel progenitor cell present in adult marrow that is biologically and antigenically distinct from the mesenchymal stem cell MSC. MAPCs represent a more primitive progenitor cell population than MSCs and demonstrate remarkable differentiation capability along the epithelial, endothelial, neuronal, myogenic, hematopoeitic, osteogenic, hepatic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. MAPCs thus embody a unique class of adult stem cells that emulate the broad biological plasticity characteristic of embryonic stem ES cells, while maintaining the characteristics that make adult stem cells more amenable to therapeutic application. MAPCs have been reported to be capable of prolonged culture without loss of differentiation potential, and of showing efficient, long-term engraftment and differentiation along multiple developmental lineages in nonobese diabetic NOD -severe combined immunodeficient SCID mice without evidence of teratoma formation.