Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid , which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid , which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised , ethnically diverse slave population. The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, , followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of , which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines. Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century. Between and , the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress ANC , the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. Apartheid is an Afrikaans  word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart", literally " apart -hood " from Afrikaans "-heid".
South Africa: White domination and Black resistance (1881-1948)
The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the Southwest: Imperial Domination and Its Consequences
Description The Neo-Assyrian empire -- the first large empire of the ancient world -- has attracted a great deal of public attention ever since the spectacular discoveries of its impressive remains in the 19th century. The southwestern part of this empire, located in the lands of the Bible, is archaeologically speaking the best known region in the world, and its history is described in a plethora of texts, including the Hebrew Bible. Using a bottom-up approach, Avraham Faust utilises this unparalleled information to reconstruct the outcomes of the Assyrian conquest of the region and how it impacted the diverse political units and ecological zones that comprised it. In doing so, he draws close attention to the transformations the imperial take-over brought in its wake.
' DIATUDE ' : HOW SOM E WOMEN ESCAPED FROM MEN ' S DOMINATION IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA
June 28, Journal article Open Access. Nurudeen Alliyu. Traditional views on women in relation to men in almost all aspects of life have always been in favour of the male gender across cultures.
The diamond fields attracted adventurers from Britain, Europe and USA as well as African migrant workers from across eastern seaboard and stimulated agricultural market production in the region Newbury , In the Orange Free State and the ZAR the franchise was restricted to Boers and Africans were subjected to labour tribute, cattle extractions, taxation and land alienation Makhura , ; Morton , ; Malkin , In Natal a system of indirect rule through chiefs was implemented, Africans were restricted to "native reserves" to free up land for occupation by White farmers and heavy taxes were imposed to secure wage labour Malkin , 30, 91; McClendon , , , ; Etherington , 9. In the Cape liberal notions of incorporating and assimilating Africans culturally and politically gave way to a Social Darwinism that believed that "it was only a matter of time before 'the lower races, those whom we designate as savages, must disappear from the face of the earth'" Parry , ; Beinart ,